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authorLars-Dominik Braun <lars@6xq.net>2016-10-16 16:40:02 +0200
committerLars-Dominik Braun <lars@6xq.net>2016-10-16 16:40:02 +0200
commitc196fdc036ab718822c4abadbd76b5ef684967e6 (patch)
treed6ecda747dfb803bb2de97fa5557d230ce4a066a
parent0717f0ace3229b4993486c0f5c349a1111814073 (diff)
downloadeumel-c196fdc036ab718822c4abadbd76b5ef684967e6.zip
eumel-c196fdc036ab718822c4abadbd76b5ef684967e6.tar.gz
eumel-c196fdc036ab718822c4abadbd76b5ef684967e6.tar.bz2
Add more history, trivia and move to separate files
-rw-r--r--eumel_logo.svg31
-rw-r--r--history.rst20
-rw-r--r--index.rst69
-rw-r--r--internals.rst4
-rw-r--r--overview.rst35
-rw-r--r--popularity.rst6
-rw-r--r--quickstart.rst34
-rw-r--r--trivia.rst22
8 files changed, 154 insertions, 67 deletions
diff --git a/eumel_logo.svg b/eumel_logo.svg
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..733855d
--- /dev/null
+++ b/eumel_logo.svg
@@ -0,0 +1,31 @@
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+</svg>
diff --git a/history.rst b/history.rst
index 853b8d3..cf3dfd0 100644
--- a/history.rst
+++ b/history.rst
@@ -27,8 +27,28 @@ A year later, in 1979, details about EUMEL were published in GMD Spiegel
[kloeckner79]_. Officially the cooperation between HRZ Bielefeld and GMD began
in fall 1979 [gmdspiegel85d]_.
+The original ELAN compiler written by Liedtke and Bartling was replaced by in
+1982 as part of project MIKROS at GMD. Its replacement was written in CDL’s
+successor, CDL2 [gmdbericht84]_. This work resulted in ports of EUMEL to
+different processor architectures, starting with Olivetti M 20’s Zilog 8001.
+This version was presented a year later at Hannover Messe 1983
+[computerwoche83a]_ [rechenanlagen83]_.
+
+For their efforts to `transfer EUMEL to Japan`_ a delegation consisting of
+Konrad Klöckner, Jochen Liedtke, Peter Heyderhoff, Dietmar Heinrichs and Uwe
+Beyer received the *Technologie-Transfer-Preis* worth 15.000 DM by Minister of
+Scientific Research Heinz Riesenhuber on 1985-12-09. [happycomputer86]_
+[gmdspiegel85d]_ [generalanzeiger85]_
+
+Another two years later, in October 1987, the spin-off company ERGOS (Ergonomic
+Office Software GmbH) finally started marketing EUMEL to customers. GMD was
+still responsible for development and maintenance of EUMEL and schulis until
+1990 [gmdspiegel87c]_.
+
.. [#] See [gmdspiegel85a]_, [liedtke93]_, [gmdbericht84]_, [ambros90b]_ and [praxis1]_
+.. _transfer EUMEL to Japan: popularity_
+
Releases
^^^^^^^^
diff --git a/index.rst b/index.rst
index 012e1e8..441df74 100644
--- a/index.rst
+++ b/index.rst
@@ -24,78 +24,15 @@ systems as of 2016.
.. contents::
-Overview
---------
-
-EUMEL is different from conventional operating systems in a lot of ways. Some
-of them were neccessary due to hardware constraints at that time and others
-were deliberatly designed this way. EUMEL’s key features are:
-
-Hardware independence
- The OS has *two* hardware abstraction layers, significantly improving its
- portability. The first one, Software/Hardware (SHard), provides functions
- for a concrete machine, such as the Olivietti M20, Amiga ST or IBM PC
- AT/XT. EUMEL0 (Urlader), the second layer, implements a virtual machine on
- top of a specific processor architecture like Z80 or x86. Programs are
- compiled into bytecode for this machine and thus independent of the actual
- machine they are running on.
-Single-level store
- Every object (dataspace) lives in a single, virtual address space. The
- memory is organized into pages, which can reside in memory or on disk.
- The operating system transparently moves pages to disk if they have not
- been in use lately and reads them back as soon as a process requests it
- ([praxis2]_, p. 82).
-Copy on write
- Pages are shareable and EUMEL automatically unshares them if one copy is
- written to.
-Persistence
- Every file and every task is a dataspace. Since they all reside in the
- single-level store the machine can powered off and back on again, with all
- tasks starting from the point where they left off.
-Time-sharing and multi-user
- A single machine running EUMEL is capable of serving multiple “thin
- clients” connected via serial lines.
-
-Quick start
------------
-
-Fortunately a set of 1.2 MB install floppy disks of EUMEL’s x86 port has been
-preserved. It can be installed in any virtual machine emulating an
-IBM PC. In this example we’re using qemu_. The `first disk`__ is optional and
-contains `install instructions`_ in german language. The `second disk`__ is the
-bootable setup programs. It creates a partition on the harddrive, formats it
-and installs the SHard. `Disk three`__ contains EUMEL0 and base system.
-
-1. Create a 128 MB harddrive: ``qemu-img create root.img 128M``
-2. Start the setup program: ``qemu-system-i386 -drive
- file=02_setup.img,if=floppy,format=raw -drive file=root.img,format=raw``
-3. Create a new partition by pressing ``1<return>``, confirm with ``j`` and
- accept the following defaults with <return> or ``j``.
-4. If the main screen is displayed again press ``0<return>`` and confirm yet
- again with ``j`` to exit setup. The screen should now read “E N D E”.
-5. Quit qemu and restart it with the third floppy disk. The bootloader
- complains that “HG ungueltig”.
-6. Press any key followed by ``2`` and a confirmation with ``j``. Reset the
- machine again.
-7. Now we have to set up the keyboard layout and time. Select “Kanal 1” with
- ``j``, then press ``n`` until ``pc.1.25`` is displayed and confirm. Disable
- “Kanal 2” and 15 with ``n`` and decline deleting those channels with ``n``.
-8. Congratulations, a fully functional EUMEL is now running in your virtual
- machine! For the next steps head over to [praxis1]_.
-
-__ disks/grundpaket/01_readme.img
-__ disks/grundpaket/02_setup.img
-__ disks/grundpaket/03_eumel0.img
-
-.. _install instructions: 01_readme_INSTALL.txt
-.. _qemu: http://www.qemu.org/
-
+.. include:: overview.rst
+.. include:: quickstart.rst
.. include:: history.rst
.. include:: popularity.rst
.. include:: hardware.rst
.. include:: software.rst
.. include:: internals.rst
.. include:: artifacts.rst
+.. include:: trivia.rst
Bibliography
------------
diff --git a/internals.rst b/internals.rst
index 3c586a3..79ef815 100644
--- a/internals.rst
+++ b/internals.rst
@@ -8,5 +8,9 @@ Documentation for the dataspace FILE can be found in `<tools/convertFileDs.py>`_
Source code
^^^^^^^^^^^
+The following files have been extracted from the floppy disk images available below__.
+
+__ artifacts_
+
.. include:: source.rst
diff --git a/overview.rst b/overview.rst
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..e3a60e8
--- /dev/null
+++ b/overview.rst
@@ -0,0 +1,35 @@
+Overview
+--------
+
+EUMEL is different from conventional operating systems in a lot of ways. Some
+of them were neccessary due to hardware constraints at that time and others
+were deliberatly designed this way. EUMEL’s key features are:
+
+Hardware independence
+ The OS has *two* hardware abstraction layers, significantly improving its
+ portability. The first one, Software/Hardware (SHard), provides functions
+ for a concrete machine, such as the Olivietti M20, Amiga ST or IBM PC
+ AT/XT. EUMEL0 (Urlader), the second layer, implements a virtual machine on
+ top of a specific processor architecture like Z80 or x86. Programs are
+ compiled into bytecode for this machine and thus independent of the actual
+ machine they are running on.
+Single-level store
+ Every object (dataspace) lives in a single, virtual address space. The
+ memory is organized into pages, which can reside in memory or on disk.
+ The operating system transparently moves pages to disk if they have not
+ been in use lately and reads them back as soon as a process requests it
+ ([praxis2]_, p. 82).
+Copy on write
+ Pages are shareable and EUMEL automatically unshares them if one copy is
+ written to.
+Persistence
+ Every file and every task is a dataspace. Since they all reside in the
+ single-level store the machine can powered off and back on again, with all
+ tasks starting from the point where they left off.
+Time-sharing and multi-user
+ A single machine running EUMEL is capable of serving multiple “thin
+ clients” connected via serial lines.
+One-language concept
+ *ELAN (Elementary Language)* is system implementation language, programming
+ language, shell language and documentation language.
+
diff --git a/popularity.rst b/popularity.rst
index e1d6d3a..c2a103c 100644
--- a/popularity.rst
+++ b/popularity.rst
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
Popularity
----------
-Available sources disagree on the actual number of installations. [liedtke93]_
+Available sources disagree on the actual number of installations. [liedtke93]_
mentions 2000 systems were installed by 1985, but [gmdbericht86a]_ counts
only 1000 systems by the end of 1986. Amongst the users were a growing number
of schools: 20 in 1982 ([alwr82]_, part 4, p. 13) and 500 secondary schools by
@@ -16,6 +16,10 @@ amongst those located in Hannover in 1994 revealed four of 56 (7%) law offices
still ran EUMEL machines eight years after intruduction of ErgoJUR and advodat
[jurpc94]_.
+GMD itself sold 22, 11 and 102 copies in 1982, ’83 and ’84 respectively. These
+numbers do not include copies sold by one of the 3, 4 and 7 licensees.
+[ttpreis85]_
+
By mid 1985 support for the Japanese *Kanji* writing system was added to EUMEL
[gmdspiegel85d]_. A newly founded corporation *NISSIN Products Corp. Tokyo*
sold the product on the Japanese market [gmdbericht85]_.
diff --git a/quickstart.rst b/quickstart.rst
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..45598f6
--- /dev/null
+++ b/quickstart.rst
@@ -0,0 +1,34 @@
+Quick start
+-----------
+
+Fortunately a set of 1.2 MB install floppy disks of EUMEL’s x86 port has been
+preserved. It can be installed in any virtual machine emulating an
+IBM PC. In this example we’re using qemu_. The `first disk`__ is optional and
+contains `install instructions`_ in german language. The `second disk`__ is the
+bootable setup programs. It creates a partition on the harddrive, formats it
+and installs the SHard. `Disk three`__ contains EUMEL0 and base system.
+
+1. Create a 128 MB harddrive: ``qemu-img create root.img 128M``
+2. Start the setup program: ``qemu-system-i386 -drive
+ file=02_setup.img,if=floppy,format=raw -drive file=root.img,format=raw``
+3. Create a new partition by pressing ``1<return>``, confirm with ``j`` and
+ accept the following defaults with <return> or ``j``.
+4. If the main screen is displayed again press ``0<return>`` and confirm yet
+ again with ``j`` to exit setup. The screen should now read “E N D E”.
+5. Quit qemu and restart it with the third floppy disk. The bootloader
+ complains that “HG ungueltig”.
+6. Press any key followed by ``2`` and a confirmation with ``j``. Reset the
+ machine again.
+7. Now we have to set up the keyboard layout and time. Select “Kanal 1” with
+ ``j``, then press ``n`` until ``pc.1.25`` is displayed and confirm. Disable
+ “Kanal 2” and 15 with ``n`` and decline deleting those channels with ``n``.
+8. Congratulations, a fully functional EUMEL is now running in your virtual
+ machine! For the next steps head over to [praxis1]_.
+
+__ disks/grundpaket/01_readme.img
+__ disks/grundpaket/02_setup.img
+__ disks/grundpaket/03_eumel0.img
+
+.. _install instructions: 01_readme_INSTALL.txt
+.. _qemu: http://www.qemu.org/
+
diff --git a/trivia.rst b/trivia.rst
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..c2fcd6b
--- /dev/null
+++ b/trivia.rst
@@ -0,0 +1,22 @@
+Trivia
+------
+
+.. figure:: eumel_logo.svg
+
+ EUMEL’s logo
+
+- The German word *Eumel* describes__ a likeable fool (wally).
+- Wikipedia refers to EUMEL as *L2* (for *Liedtke 2*). However this name is
+ not mentioned in any documentation or source code. It was added to the
+ German__ and English__ Wikipedia in 2006 without a source, which could be
+ `Jochen Liedtke’s death notice`__.
+- EUMEL was a registered wordmark from 1985 to 1996 (DPMA: 1087527__ 1106662__)
+
+__ https://dict.leo.org/forum/viewWrongentry.php?idThread=40527&idForum=6&lang=de&lp=ende
+__ https://de.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=L2_(Betriebssystem)&diff=21818522&oldid=21818465
+__ https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Eumel&diff=94747578&oldid=92908729
+.. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Eumel&diff=next&oldid=510781458
+__ https://os.itec.kit.edu/downloads/in-memoriam-jochen-liedtke_de.pdf
+__ https://register.dpma.de/DPMAregister/marke/register/1087527/DE
+__ https://register.dpma.de/DPMAregister/marke/register/1106662/DE
+